Recently, governments have been required to maximize possible outcome of their investment by making efforts for designing a scheme to close the gap between concept and commercialisation. Having in mind "translational research" that bridges such a gap and drive forward innovation, the report has explored the roles and performances of schemes in 4 countries: Germany, the US, the UK and France.
The report examined 5 case studies: Fraunhofer in Germany, the Clinical and Translational Science Award (CTSA) program of the National Institutes of Health (NIH) and the Engineering Research Center (ERC) program of the National Science Foundation (NSF) in the US, the Catapult Programme in the UK and Carnot Institutes in France.
The original of this report is written in Japanese and published in March 2016. This English translation version is tentative, made by CRDS.