Wisdom Computing - Research and development for creative collaboration between humans and machines/CRDS-FY2013-SP-07
Executive Summary

"Wisdom Computing" is our initiative to make our intelligent world richer and lead us to better decisions under our complicate and ever changing situations. We believe this initiative makes our human life better in quality and we gain abilities to deal with machines whose ever-increasing capabilities threaten human works and intelligence. We pursue this initiative by utilizing Information Science with collaboration of other disciplines such as social sciences and humanities.

Modern society is suffering from abundant knowledge and information, and we face difficulties to utilize this to make our life better in practice. The amount of information has been awfully increasing ever. However, they are unorganized, unstructured, and a jumble of wheat and tares. In this situation, we however have only a limited capability of search, extraction, accumulation, propagation and utilization of knowledge.

With continuous and exponential growth of computing power and storage capacity in the last fifty years, machines begin to show a substantial presence in our daily and work life. Artificial intelligence is now opening up a new frontier after decades of disillusionment. For example, in Shogi, the Japanese chess, nowadays machines compete with professional players; a computer defeated human champions in a famous quiz show in 2011. Advanced voice recognition and natural language processing technology enable us to enjoy voice search and foreign language translation at a practical level.

We, Center for Research and Development Strategy(CRDS) of Japan Science and Technology Agency(JST), assembled the survey titled “Panoramic View of the Electronics, Information and Communication Field(2013)” in 2013, and through this work we proposed to our government “Wisdom Computing” as a strategic challenge for the advance of our nation in this field. We shaped this concept by holding “Wisdom Computing Summit 2013” in July, 2013 and three follow on workshops focusing on wisdom computing and media, interaction, and communities. Through discussions among many multidisciplinary experts and researchers participated, we clarified the R&D orientation and the profound arguments on concrete R&D themes in this new academic discipline "Wisdom Computing".

"Wisdom Computing" aims to promote accumulation and propagation of wisdom, to accelerate scientific discoveries and to create a framework for better human lives.
Considering the implementation of R&D to society, we focus on the following three viewpoints such as (1) the pursuit of what humans cannot do, (2) the pursuit of what existing sciences cannon solve, and (3) social-application conscious R&D.

Accumulation, propagation and exploration of accelerating knowledge (the pursuit of what humans cannot do): Human cannot instantly make the most appropriate proposal by using a diversity of intelligence and knowledge connected to a worldwide network. In this proposal, we focus especially on the R&D of the interactions between humans and machines for accumulation, propagation and exploration of wisdom.
Promotion of prediction and discovery ( the pursuit of what existing sciences cannot solve): Science has been a powerful tool to explain physical phenomena by applying scientific laws found through scientific observation. However, there still remain too complex issues for the known scientific laws to solve, and too complex scientific laws to describe by themselves. We pursue the R&D to accelerate scientific discoveries by using information science and technology as a lens or a computational way of thinking, like we use a telescope and a microscope to obtain completely new scientific views of the world.
Actuation of knowledge into society (social-application conscious R&D): These R&D should contribute to better human lives including more persuasive decision-makings and effective social system operations. We pursue the new ways for the creation and circulation of wisdom by giving the actuation feedback to all the related scientists and actors.

To implement these R&D into society, it is important to construct a common platform which can be used and shared between intra- and inter-projects. Throughout the whole period, it is necessary to carry out R&D for ELSI(Ethical, Legal and Social Issues), which includes both positive and negative impacts of new science and technology. We expect research in ELSI and SSH(Social Science and Humanities) enables us to deal with situations where machines and computation far exceed human capabilities and human being need to devise a way to utilize their capacity for the sake of our happiness without threatening our dignity.

"Wisdom Computing" contains wide range of research areas with many challenges. Another issue is that the problems and issues which "Wisdom Computing" can address are broad and it is hard to produce results for society in timely manner without sound roadmap and focus. The targeting area varies from the simple and primitive levels for individuals or small groups of people, up to complex and high level ones for communities or social systems. Handling this type of R&D in an incremental and iterative approach is effective. In this proposal, the first step of "Wisdom Computing", we identified the following R&D agenda in order to solve the simple and primitive issues for individuals or small groups of people.

1. Research agenda for defining and clarifying problems to solve by interactions between humans and systems
1-1 Reducing ambiguity of the issue by interactions between humans and the system
1-2 Understanding human behavior, intention or situation
1-3 Decomposition and transforming of the defined problems

2. Research agenda for constructing knowledge bases
2-1 Acquiring, representing and accumulating knowledge
2-2 Semantic representing and processing
2-3 Constructing, managing, and maintaining knowledge platform

3. Research agenda for answering, suggesting, advising, or arguing capabilities
3-1 Inference, hypothesis generation or simulation technologies for prediction
3-2 Community building for collaboration among humans and machines
3-3 Technologies for presentation options, explanation or persuasion

Social and economic impact of "Wisdom Computing" is that social implementation of R&D accelerates accumulation, propagation and exploration of knowledge. We accumulate and interlink abundant data, information and knowledge. Propagation and circulation are promoted to enable us to explore and use desired data in a natural manner. Newly obtained knowledge is stored and reused for later use throughout the entire society. Thus, we will be moving a step closer to the realization in a highly intelligent society, where the quality of our decision-making is improved and persuasive solutions to previously unsolvable issues are acquired, by synthetically analyzing evidences from different systems, and gathering wisdom from a diversity of humanity.

As scientific impacts, the first is to create a new research field "Wisdom Computing". The goal is to become a multidisciplinary field composed of not only natural sciences such as artificial intelligence, cognitive science, brain science and robotics but also humanities and social sciences such as economics and psychology. The second is to establish new relationship between humans and machines not by treating machines with incredible power as a threat or only as a tool, but by fostering machines to conduct intelligent information processing to support humans as partners.

To create a new academic wave "Wisdom Computing", the R&D should be continued over at least 10 years. Therefore, it is important to provide consecutive funding, to establish a research community both domestically and internationally, to be recognized the value by industry and society, and to maintain academic activities internationally. We also make efforts to stimulate researchers' challenges and to cultivate young researchers. CRDS will positively and continuously engage in these activities.

In the process of making this proposal, a part of the concept of "Wisdom Computing" was reflected in one of the 2014 Strategic Objectives of Japan "Development of Intelligent Information Processing Technology to Realize Creative Collaboration between Human and Machines". Then, JST initiated a new Research Area of CREST "Intelligent Information Processing Systems Creating Co-Experience Knowledge and Wisdom with Human-Machine Harmonious Collaboration". We hope that researchers who apply for and participate in the CREST comprehend the grand design of "Wisdom Computing" and understand the position of the CREST in it.