(Global Technology Comparison on specific topics)
International Research and Development on Sustainable exploitation and management of Marine BioResources and Ecosystem services/CRDS-FY2005-GR-06
Executive Summary

Background and Objectives:
The purpose of this study was to assess the state of marine science and technology (Marine S&T) in the fields of ‘Management of Marine Bioresources & Ecosystem Services’ worldwide and to compare the R&D activities or levels in this field between Japan and other countries. The comparison was to be based on the area of Functional genome (and marine biotechnology), Bioresource (Particulary on Aquacultural technologies), and Research Fascilities for Ecosystem Management (Particulary on Monitering and Modeling). In order to obtain a baseline for comparisons, the study was to begin with an assessment of the status of Marine S&T in the Japan.
In order to restrict the study to the level of available funding, the study was restricted to current eff orts in USA, and Europe. Clearly, significant work is going on in many other countries, but it was not possible to include them all in this survey. Some other countries like Australia, France, Germany were included by a “virtual site visit,” where selected scientists or laboratories were interviewed with a series of questions and to provide pictures of the major Marine S&T for ‘Management of Marine Bioresources & Ecosystem Services’ they have developed. Nevertheless, the work in the countries studied provides an excellent overview of work outside of the Japan.

Major findings and Key future challenges( Selected Topics):
[1]Ecosystem management( Monitoring & Modeling)
Parameterization of physical processes such as turbulence, diffusion, or mixing in subgrid-scale is indispensable to minimize and validate the forecast errors.
Elucidation of physical model parameters like mixing, diffusion, turbulence, in Sub-grid scale ecosystem to reduce Model Uncertainty and Limitations.
Data Management and Communications(DMAC) is an essential challenge for quality control which leads to reliability, systained, or efficient operations.
Coupling of meta(eco)-genome data and Biogeochemical monitoring data and lead multiscale assessments. USA is far advanced in ecogenomics research, fascilities, computer science and amounts of funding( e.g. DOE, GBMF, NSF).
Long-term ecosystem monitoring is an essential method to understand regime shifts or global climate change.
Ecological stoichiometry of energy, nutrients, essential chemical elemental cyclings and Biogeochemical Interactions (The study of the balance of energy and multiple chemical elements in ecological systems). 
Development of advanced Monitoring tools or IT Facilities, such as automatic, autonomous, remote DNA analyzer, biodiversity identification system and their data node are unexceptable
Basic research to understand the mechanisms of long-term, globalscale climate change, sub-global scale ocean dynamics and ecosystem change (e.g. regime shifts, interaction between microbes and fish etc.) are particularly important.
Science-based bio-resource management system based on the Ecosystem variability will be one of the next generation’s.
Corrosion and Errosion Science (e.g. biofouling mechanism) for sustainability. It is important to forcus on eosystem based modeling and management of marine bio-resources as well as on some fundamental corrosion/erosion mechanisms in terms of sustainability and new commercialization. 
Shifting the fisheries process to Ecosystem-Based, Sustainable (Zero- Emission) and Responsible, by overcoming cost-benefit problems. Japan is one of the leading countries in aquacultural technology and should strengthen that advantage. For example, feed efficiency rate is improving up to 1.2 (1.0kg of wet body weight of the fish to 1.2kg of feeding), particularly in the salmon / trout aquaculture. In terms of the priority of food production strategy, we need to enhance our fish / feed production technology potentiality.
[3]Functional genome
Marine biotechnology for innovation. Isolation of Novel compounds from marine organisms as Japan had prioritized to improve R&D once before. And Japan should take part in more international biodiversity networks in order to collect much world-wide information.