Establishment of the Global Innovation Ecosystem to Solve Global-scale Problems - Environment, Energy, Food and Water Challenges /CRDS-FY2007-SP-11
Executive Summary

Currently, there is growing crisis awareness for various global-scale problems that come from explosive increase in population and expansion of human activities. In particular, a lot of attention has been paid to global warming resulting from increase of greenhouse gasses in the air (carbon dioxide, methane, etc.). At the G8 Summit 2007 Heiligendamm, the Japanese government proposed “Cool Earth 50,” insisting that there should be a new framework to eliminate greenhouse gasses by participation of the entire world beyond the Kyoto Protocol. This proposal was widely supported and the members of the G8 Summit agreed to seriously examine to at least halve greenhouse gas emissions throughout the world by 2050. In the G8 Hokkaido Toyako Summit to be held in 2008, the participants are expected to discuss about the next-term climate change framework agreement after 2013.

Increasing global-scale problems range from global warming to desertification and lack of water/foods in African and Asia, sudden rise and outbreak of emerging infections, skewed distribution and depletion of natural resources such as oil and rare metals, and widening and increasing visibility of disparity. With globalization of economic activities, companies must win intensifying international competition through global development of research and development, production and sales.
Under such background, every country around the world must tackle with these global-scale problems by capitalizing on each position and strengths and making concerted efforts. For this purpose, it is necessary to establish a global-scale innovation system, that is, Global Innovation Ecosystem (GIES), which allows global expansion of innovation systems of each country. The GIES is a concept proposed through collaboration among government, industry and academia and aims to solve global-scales problems and balance sustainable development by creating new social and economic values through competition and partnership between public and private sectors. This strategic proposal covers the following four global-scale problems as examples from the position of science and technology innovation and proposes solutions for 2050. Under the concept of GIES, we combine a “Shape of an Ideal Society” that we should realize and technologies that contribute to the realization as a package, and present research and development issues that we need to address and necessary political issues as “Methods of Attainment.”

(1) Effective use of natural energy
(2) Environmentally low-load transportation system
(3) Supply of safe water
(4) Stable supply of safe food