Project

Completed Research

Selected in Fiscal 2001

Formation of organs and tissues from pluripotential cells of vertebrates
[ Research representative : Makoto Asashima ]
Research representative
Makoto Asashima (Professor, Graduate School of Arts and Sciences, The University of Tokyo)
Source program
Former CREST, "Genetic Programming"
Overview
In his previous studies, the researcher processed undifferentiated cells of amphibians with chemicals, thereby succeeding in differentiating organs and tissues having virtually the same structures and functions as those of normal embryos.
This program will attempt to extend the technique from amphibians to mammals for producing organs and tissues having three-dimensional structures from undifferentiated cells, with mice as the target.
Development of environmentally-friendly processes using nano-scale catalysts and reaction fields
[ Research representative : Shu Kobayashi ]
Research representative
Shu Kobayashi (Professor, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, The University of Tokyo)
Source program
Former CREST, "Single Molecule and Atom Level Reactions"
Overview
In his previous studies regarding some important organic reaction systems, the researcher successfully developed highly active polymer-immobilized catalysts utilizing microencapsulation methods, and also developed organic reactions in water utilizing surfactants.
This program will attempt to develop various catalysts utilizing microencapsulation methods or combination with surfactants, and attempt to extend these nano-scale catalysts and reaction fields to a new kind of chemical industry of low environmental impact.
Developing photon detectors and scanning microscopes in the infrared-submillimeter wave region
[ Research representative : Susumu Komiyama ]
Research representative
Susumu Komiyama (Professor, Department of Basic Science, The University of Tokyo)
Source program
Former CREST, "Quantum Effects and Related Physical Phenomena"
Overview
In his previous studies, the researcher succeeded in developing high-sensitivity detectors in three wavelengths from infrared to submillimeter waves, and demonstrated it was possible to detect single photons in electromagnetic waves in this wavelength region.
This program aims at developing detectors that can detect single photons in a wider wavelength region spaning from infrared to submillimeter waves, and targets the development of scanning far-infrared microscopes by utilizing these single photon detectors.
Fabrication of new matters based on quasi-periodic structures
[ Research representative : Tsai An-Pang ]
Research representative
Tsai An-Pang (Group Leader, Materials Engineering Laboratory, National Institute for Materials Science)
Source program
Former CREST, "Phenomena of Extreme Conditions"
Overview
In the previous studies on "quasi-crystals," which are a third group of substances following crystals and amorphous materials, discovery of new alloys, methodology of structural analysis and clarificatoion of physical properties such as magnetic properties have been accomplished, and a quasicrystalline catalyst reveaing high activity and high thermal stability for steam-reforming of methanol has been developped.
This program is aiming at discovering new quasi-crystal substances with useful properties, obtaining a complete solution of the structure, investigating structures of surfaces and pseudo-morphology over the surfaces of quasicrystals, and at developing catalytic functions of quasicrystals for indutries.
Creating intelligent molecules based on genome chemistry
[ Research representative : Isao Saito ]
Research representative
Isao Saito (Professor, Graduate School of Engineering, Kyoto University)
Source program
Former CREST, "Single Molecule and Atom Level Reactions"
Overview
In his previous studies, the researcher used certain kinds of high polymer compounds and reactants to cause chemical reactions specifically in particular DNA sequences, and discovered that this enables the control of DNA sequence expression.
This program will create devices that control the expression of particular genes by linking specifically to those genes, and also consider the effectiveness of such devices as new genome drugs in their application.
Controlling infections and immune reactions by chemokines and dendritic cells
[ Research representative : Koji Matsushima ]
Research representative
Koji Matsushima (Professor, Graduate School of Medicine, The University of Tokyo)
Source program
Former CREST, "Host Defense Mechanism"
Overview
In his previous studies, the researcher analyzed the physiological actions of chemokine and the signal transmission mechanism of receptors in cells, and demonstrated that chemokine and dendritic cells play important roles in inflammation and immune reactions.
This program will focus on chemokine and dendritic cells, clarify the molecular mechanism of their immune control reactions, and facilitate the development of new inflammation and immune controlling agents, including possible new cures for cancer.
Molecular mechanism of brain dynamics
[ Research representative : Masayoshi Mishina ]
Research representative
Masayoshi Mishina (Professor, Graduate School of Medicine, The University of Tokyo)
Source program
Former CREST, "Understanding the Brain (Mechanisms of Brain)"
Overview
In his previous studies, the researcher developed an intracerebral region- and time-specific target gene recombinant method, a method of nerve circuit-specific molecular manipulation and other methods, thus helping to elucidate the molecular mechanism governing interactions between the structure and functions of the brain.
This program will employ these techniques to elucidate the molecular mechanism of forming and reorganizing the neural network, in an attempt to elucidate the foundation for brain development, memory, learning and other brain dynamics.
Quantitative evaluation of greenhouse gas sources and sinks by isotopomer
[ Research representative : Naohiro Yoshida ]
Research representative
Naohiro Yoshida (Professor, Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology)
Source program
Former CREST, "Social Systems for Better Environment Performance"
Overview
In his previous studies, the researcher successfully developed a method of measuring isotopomer (a generic term for the category of molecules containing isotopes) and elucidated the sources (particularly the natural ones) of environmental materials.
This program will apply the techniques developed in his previous studies to greenhouse gases, categorize anthropogenic sources, conduct simulation experiments on sinks (the consuming process), perform observation utilizing networks in an attempt to achieve precise evaluation of the budget of greenhouse gases on a global scale.
Analyzing the dynamic control mechanism of a network of microtubules
[ Research representative : Shoichiro Tsukita ]
Research representative
Shoichiro Tsukita (Professor, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University)
Agent
Sachiko Tsukita (Professor, School of Health Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, Kyoto University)
Source program
Former ERATO, "TSUKITA Cell Axis Project"
Overview
In his previous studies, the researcher elucidated the actual nature of the cell axis (a universal axis of coordinates within the cells themselves) and through this effort, achieved such results among others as the discovery of new subcellular organelles and the kinetic analysis of proteins in the cells.
This program will elucidate the kinetic control mechanism of the network of microtubules in cells that are considered a major constituent element of the cell axis, in an attempt to better understand the molecular mechanism of creating functional cellular morphogenesis.
Creation of polysaccharide-based gene manipulators utilizing one-dimensional molecular recognition systems
[ Research representative : Seiji Shinkai ]
Research representative
Seiji Shinkai (Professor, Graduate School of Engineering, Kyushu University)
Source program
Former ICORP, "Chemotransfiguration Project"
Overview
A novel fact that natural polysaccharides, beta-1,3- glucans can form complexes with certain DNA and RNA has been discovered. Utilizing this fact, novel and safe gene vectors have been exploited and applied.
This program will conduct basic research on a complex of this natural substance with a nucleic acid, along with other studies, in attempts to develop a low-cost messenger RNA separation refinery system and a new non-viral genetic vector.
Morphological aberration and pathological symptoms of the Golgi body and endoplasmic reticula in cells
[ Research representative : Hisao Kondo ]
Research representative
Hisao Kondo (Principal Investigator, Cambridge Research for Medical Research, University of Cambridge)
Source program
Former PRESTO, "Form and Function"
Overview
In his previous studies, the researcher studied how the structure of the Golgi body (a subcellular organelle) forms and the kinds of functions to which it is linked.
This program will use these findings to compose a model cell system, elucidate the mechanism of generating such morphological aberration or aberration in the cell functions due to that morphological aberration, and attempt to eventually to collect basic data about certain kinds of curing degenerative neurological disorders.
Development of a novel analysis/spectroscopic system based on laser chemistry of proteins
[ Research representative : Yasuyuki Tsuboi ]
Research representative
Yasuyuki Tsuboi (Associate Professor, Graduate School of Science, Hokkaido University)
Source program
Former PRESTO, "Structure and Transformation"
Overview
In his previous studies, the researcher clarified that certain proteins can be accumulated in the form of a thin film and further subjected to special processing without easily decomposing under high-luminance laser irradiation.
This program will attempt to build a micro-analysis chip modified by biological molecules by using that method, along with a laser-trap Raman microscope.
Developing control engineering for cell division and cell differentiation via sugar chains
[ Research representative : Kazuya Nomura ]
Research representative
Kazuya Nomura (Associate Professor, Graduate School of Science, Kyushu University)
Source program
Former PRESTO, "Unit Process and Combined Circuit"
Overview
In his previous studies, the researcher demonstrated that the use of sugar chains can reverse the direction of cell differentiation and division, which had hitherto been considered to proceed in one direction only.
This program will analyze this mechanism more in detail in an attempt to elucidate the basic mechanism of cell division and differentiation.
A humanoid robot that can learn and generate sign language and dance motions by observation
[ Research representative : Kiyoshi Hoshino ]
Research representative
Kiyoshi Hoshino (Associate Professor, Institute of Engineering Mechanics and Systems, University of Tsukuba)
Source program
Former PRESTO, "Information and Human Activity"
Overview
In his previous studies, the researcher elucidated how the central nervous system evaluates and generates motion commands as pertaining to the creation and performance of creative dance movement and other entirely new sequential motions, from the perspectives of processing sensitivity information, computational brain science and robotics.
This program will use those findings to develop a humanoid robot system that can learn and perform sign language and other motions by observing and imitating the motions made by others.
Elucidating the molecular mechanism of amyloid formation, and development of inhibiting agents and diagnostic methods
[ Research representative : Hisakazu Mihara ]
Research representative
Hisakazu Mihara (Professor, Graduate School of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Tokyo Institute of Technology)
Source program
Former PRESTO, "Form and Function"
Overview
In his previous studies, the researcher elucidated and successfully modeled the molecular mechanisms of amyloid fiber formation via structural transition of amyloid proteins, which cause Alzheimer's disease, mad cow and other amyloid diseases.
This program will develop molecules to elucidate details of the fiber formation mechanisms of amyloids and attempt to develop agents for inhibitors of the amyloid formation, as well as for safer diagnostic methods.
(Note) The titles, organizations, and overviews described above are as of the time when the projects started.

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