Direct observation and control of interface formation: Elementary phenomena related to ceramic/metal brazing and bonding were studied by in-situ experiments using a modified TEM that allowed the fabrication and observation of materials with extremely clean surfaces within its chamber. Further, the first-ever observation of the nucleation process has proved that it controls the nanoscopic, dynamic behavior process.
Nature of ceramic/metal interfaces: Nanostructures of the ceramic/metal brazed interface by HRTEM revealed features that explain various mechanical properties. Time-dependent phase changes at the ceramic/metal interfaces were also studied in situ using a newly constructed X-ray diffractometer with a high-temperature stage and imagine plate by which a rapid acquisition of the diffracted pattern was successful during a heating run.
Measured and controlled electron barrier microstructures of metal/Si interfaces: Using a newly constructed ultra-high-vacuum ( 10-10 torr) ballistic electron emission microscope (BEEM) along with an STM, the nanostructures of metal/Si and metal/insulator/Si interfaces were studied in situ. while observing the changing morphology with time it was possible to observe the BEEM current simultaneously, indicating the electronic barrier distributions along the semiconductor-metal and semiconductor-insulator-metal interfaces for the first time.
Nanosized Si dots with interfaces: A nano-sized silicon/metal bilayer dot was also successfully obtained through a surface droplet epitaxy mechanism, which is a self-assembly process.
Residue stress/strain in heterogeneous interfaces: Four new techniques using convergent beam electron diffraction (CBED) within the chamber of a TEM were developed to measure the residual stress/strain distributions around heterogeneous interfaces without any limitation of the materials. The most precise one allows measurements of 25 nanometers by CBED for Si/Silicide interfaces, perhaps the best in the world.
Nanometer bonding and control by an electron beam: Starting with metastable alumina, manometer-sized aluminum particles were made at room temperature within an STM. This was the first time to obtain aluminum particles without an oxide layer.
Theoretical simulations to make interfaces designable: Efforts were made to produce a theory that would allow the design of specific interfaces.