HAYAISHI Bioinformation Transfer

hayaishi_portrait

The project was aimed at elucidating the mechanism of intercellular and intracellular information transfer through studies of prostaglandin (PG) neuroactive actions, and to apply basic-principle type concepts to medical problems as well as information technology.

Research Director: Dr. Osamu Hayaishi
(Director Osaka Bioscience Institute)
Research Term 1983-1988

Research Results

Basic biochemical understanding of prostaglandins: Results clearly showed the importance of PGs in the central nervous system as well as in many other tissues.

Regulation of autonomic body functions: It was found that PGD2 in the brain is involved in the regulation of such autonomic functions as temperature and ocular pressure as well as the states of sleep and wakefulness through attachment to special receptor sites.

Transmission of bodily information: It was demonstrated that PGD2 plays an important role in the transmission of pain and the sense of smell. It also seems to have a significant effect on such emotions as depression.

Distribution of receptors in the brain: Using computer-assisted image analysis of autoradiographs and positron emission tomography (PET) scanning techniques, the distribution of receptors for prostaglandins in rat and monkey brain was mapped.

Enzymology of prostaglandin biosynthesis: An understanding was obtained of the biochemistry and enzymology of the biosynthesis and interconversion of the various members of the PG family.

New mechanism of biotransmitter release: It was found that there are PG E2 receptors in the adrenal medulla which can induce catecholamine release from chromaffin cells.

Morphological and biochemical differentiation: PGD2 was found to act as an intercellular mediator, a bio-transmitter, as well as an intercellular regulator in the development of the brain.

Sensitive immunoassay method: A new method of highly sensitive solid-phase enzyme immunoassay (EIA) was developed for the determination of prostaglandins in various tissues, particularly in the brain.

Prostaglandins in development and aging: Immunohistochemical studies on the localization of PGD2 synthetase in rat brain have shown that the major site changed from neuron to oligodendroglia with age.

graph1

·Autoradiographic localization of PG receptors in monkey brain

graph2

·Immunohistochemistry of PGD synthetase cerebral cortex

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