アゴラ2014 開幕セッション・キーノートセッション 開催報告

  • 開幕セッション「アゴラ:あなたと創るこれからの科学と社会」

    Opening Session "Agora: How can we come together for building relations between future society and science ?"


開催概要/Session Information

  • 日時:11月7日(金) 10:30-12:30
    Date:10:30-12:30 November 7th (Fri), 2014
  • 会場:日本科学未来館 未来館ホール(7F)
    Venue:National Museum of Emerging Science and Innovation (Miraikan), Miraikan Hall(Floor7)
  • 主催:JST科学コミュニケーションセンター
    Organizer:Center for Science Communication, JST


登壇者と発表資料/Presenters and Presentation Materials

  • 中村道治 科学技術振興機構 理事長
    Michiharu Nakamura, Japan Science and Technology Agency, President
  • ピーター ・グルックマン ニュージーランド政府首席科学顧問
    Peter Gluckman, New Zealand, Chief Science Advisor
  • チェン・ジエン 中国科学技術協会国際交流部 副部長
    Chen Jian, China Association for Science and Technology, Deputy Director General
  • 狩野光伸 岡山大学 教授
    Mitsunobu R. Kano, University of Okayama , Professor
  • 金子直哉 横浜国立大学 教授
    Naoya Kaneko, Yokohama National University , Professor
  • 高橋真理子 朝日新聞社 編集委員
    Mariko Takahashi, The Asahi Shimbun . Senior Staff Writer


  • 富田達夫 産業競争力懇談会 実行委員会委員
    Tatsuo Tomita, Working Committee, Council on Competitiveness-Nippon, Committee member


  • 原山優子 総合科学技術・イノベーション会議 議員
    Yuko Harayama, Council for Science, Technology and Innovation, Executive Member
  • 渡辺美代子 科学技術振興機構 執行役
    Miyoko O. Watanabe, Japan Science and Technology Agency , Senior Director
  • 土屋定之 文部科学省文部科学審議官
    Sadayuki Tsuchiya, Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology, Deputy Minister of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology
  • 松本洋平 内閣府大臣政務官
    Yohei Matsumoto, Parliamentary Vice-Minister of Cabinet Office
  • 永里善彦 経団連 産業技術委員会産学官連携推進部会 部会長
    Yoshihiko Nagasato, Sub-committee on Industry Academia Government Cooperation, Committee on Industrial Technology, Keidanren, Chairman
  • アン・グローバー 欧州委員会主席科学顧問
    Anne Glover, Chief Scientific Adviser to the President of the European Commission
  • マーク・ウォルポート 英国政府主席科学顧問
    Mark Walport, United Kingdom, Government Chief Scientific Adviser
  • 大竹暁 科学技術振興機構理事
    Satoru Ohtake, Japan Science and Technology Agency , Senior Executive Director

レポート/Session Report



This is the ninth year Science Agora has been held. Through the experience of the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake and through the spreading of the idea of “science communication” in general in recent years, various issues have come to the surface, including scientific literacy, direct communication by scientists with citizens, and how scientists should be involved in government policymaking.


In today’s society, there is a need to clarify the roles of science in society and consider how scientists should disseminate information and have dialogues with non-scientists, in addition to communicating the excitement of science and technology. The event gave an opportunity to reexamine what the relationship between science and society should be, including the above-mentioned points.


To mark the opening of the event, Peter Gluckman, the Chief Science Advisor of the New Zealand government gave the keynote speech.

There will be an increasing need for policymaking advice which connects science and society


Sir Peter Gluckman, the Chief Science Advisor of the New Zealand government


Scientific and technological progress has become essential for the future of humanity, including economic development and the improvement of our living conditions. At the same time, we must not overlook the fact that science and technology have created problems, such as the CO2 emissions increase and the population increase caused by technological innovation, as well as the conflicts between different values and morals caused by science.


Sir Peter Gluckman pointed out that society does not necessarily accept scientific progress unconditionally, and that contradictions and conflicts could occur in society if scientists simply believe that all we need is progress.


Sir Peter Gluckman pointed out that we must think about “science with value” where we consider how new technologies can be accepted in society, rather than simply pursuing technological progress alone. Science cannot solve all social problems. Technological progress may well result in more options, but everyone including scientists must recognize the fact that science is not omnipotent. Various incidents and accidents have shaken people’s trust in science in recent years. It is becoming increasingly important to disclose and communicate information to citizens appropriately, based on the understanding of what science can do and cannot do.


There is a trend for governments to allocate budgets for research and development with the aim of promoting technological innovation. Expectations for technological contributions not only to economic development but also to various other fields are increasing day by day. These fields include the environment, health science, conservation of organisms and public hygiene improvement. In order to meet these expectations, it is necessary to increase the opportunities and depth of cooperation between states and communication between scientists around the world.


Opportunities for scientists to directly give advice to governments are increasing. Sir Peter Gluckman serving as the Chief Science Advisor of the New Zealand government is one such example. Sir Peter Gluckman raised the question of how we should connect the government arena and science and said that scientists must give advice that will feed policymakers with ideas from the field of science, in order to increase trust in science and cooperation between the government and science.


Sir Peter Gluckman raised three important types of scientific advice. The first type is official advice given through repeated deliberation between politicians and experts who gather around one table. The second type is an informal approach for appropriate policymaking where scientists and politicians have communication when the need arises. The third type is highly urgent advice needed to make immediate decisions on issues in emergencies such as in times of disaster.


Most of the time, scientists have not actively become involved in policymaking apart from giving official advice. The quality and roles of scientists are being reconsidered, for example they are now expected to make efforts to give advice and have communication proactively, in order to make effective use of scientific knowledge in society.

The need for new scientific experiences through cooperation between scientists and by transcending academic fields


From left to right: Professor Naoya Kaneko (the moderator), Professor Mitsunobu R. Kano, Mr. Tatsuo Tomita, Ms. Mariko Takahashi, Dr. Yuko Harayama and Sir Peter Gluckman


The keynote speech was followed by a panel discussion. Panelists were: Mitsunobu R. Kano, Professor at the University of Okayama, Mariko Takahashi, Senior Staff Writer at the Asahi Shimbun, Tatsuo Tomita, Chairman of Fujitsu Laboratories Ltd., Yuko Harayama, Executive Member of the Council for Science, Technology and Innovation at the Cabinet Office of Japan, and Sir Peter Gluckman who gave the keynote speech. Naoya Kaneko, Professor at Yokohama National University served as the moderator. Firstly, each panelist talked about their ideas for the relationships between science and society.


Prof. Kano pointed out that science should be examined at each stage including the objectives, methods, results, examination and review. He explained that it is important to recognize the differences between what citizens expect from science and scientists’ objectives, and to share common objectives before conducting the creative and objective research that science can offer. He also explained that there is a need to establish a logical explanation of the kinds of results which could and could not be obtained from the research, and to make efforts to communicate the extent to which the research has achieved the objectives. He also commented that, based on the above-mentioned attitude, scientists should reexamine for whom science exists and whether or not science is contributing to the future of society and people.


Ms. Takahashi referred to the Euroscience Open Forum (ESOF) which came out of scientists’ grassroots activities, and drew attention to their activities for achieving dialogues between scientists and citizens across borders. While recognizing the significance of Science Agora as an opportunity to promote dialogues between scientists and citizens, Ms. Takahashi pointed out what is missing in Japan: “open cross-field discussions between scientists, for scientists,” “diversity” and “an organized joint research framework in Asia.” She also commented that the need for cooperation between scientists and proactive activities by scientists would increase in the future. She said, “Let’s consider Science Agora as an opportunity to improve science through the participants networking with each other. It is important to make use of Agora for science.” She also explained that stimulating diverse discussions and proactive scientific activities as well as passing the resulting outcomes on to society will effectively help improve the relationships between society and science.


Mr. Tomita gave a presentation about the Council on Competitiveness-Nippon (COCN) where innovation is being promoted through cooperation between companies with 77 promotion projects being launched. He explained that one of its activities was adopted in the state’s Cross-ministerial Strategic Innovation Promotion Program (SIP), and pointed out the importance of companies continuing to work to develop and use science and technologies that meet the needs of society.


Dr. Harayama commented that the “we” mentioned in the title of the program refers to scientists and individual citizens. She explained that open activities would be needed in the future in order for all the citizens rather than just scientists to think about how science and society should be, and to go further than “communication” and “come together for building relations between future society and science.”


Dr. Harayama said, “The important thing is to create opportunities to pursue new possibilities rather than extending existing ideas. Let’s create chances to encourage new generations to tackle scientific challenges in order to achieve unprecedented leaps and innovation in science.”


In response to the panelists’ideas, Sir Peter Gluckman pointed out the importance of scientists properly understanding the pros and cons of technologies and promoting citizens’ understanding about them, by commenting that it is necessary to have thorough dialogues with citizens on the risks, including how new technologies and knowledge should be used and how society should treat the risks that science brings.


As Prof. Kano and Ms. Takahashi pointed out, there will be an increasing need for active cross-field communication between scientists in the future. In order to create the foundation for cross-field communication, the idea of drawing a line between arts and sciences and between countries must be removed. With this in mind, there is a need to provide new generations in particular with the opportunities to gain a wide range of scientific knowledge and education, as well as the opportunities to experience the excitement of science regardless of whether it is natural science or social science. The panelists agreed that the following is an action that can be taken immediately: existing scientists recognize the importance of passing the torch to the next generation and we provide opportunities for high school students and other young people to easily participate in scientific forums such as this one.


It will be necessary more than ever to increase public understanding of science and for all members of society to consider what science should be in society, through the removal of boundaries between the arts and sciences, and the provision of opportunities for people to experience various academic fields first-hand.